Gillesonite is used for drilling mud in oil wells (about 11 to 23 kilos Gilsonite per bag of cement).
The use of Gillsonite in the drilling mud has many advantages and we mention some of them

• Reduces the dryness of the mud and increases the resistance to the wall
• The resulting compound with Gilsonite exhibits high resistance to soluble oil
• Ability to work in environments with a very high temperature (high softening point above 175 to 235 ° C).
• Avoid damaging drill bit parts
• Performs in oil- and ,water-based drilling muds
• Avoid sticking the oil-based drilling mud
• Polishing of drilling wells and removing excess mud and drilling mud
• Avoid bullet or bulk rock deposits.
• Controls fluid loss and seepage, Stabilizes shales
• Minimizes differential sticking

Sulphonated Aspahlt

It is a modified sodium sulphonated asphaltic compound. Its versatile mud conditioner contributes to the stability of drilling fluids, stabilizes shale, inhibits dispersion of drilled solids, reduces torque and drag, controls high temperature water loss and acts as an alternative to oil usage etc. and aids emulsification of oil.

• It used for shale control, fluid loss improving, Torque and Drag Reduction, Inhibition of Swelling clays of all water muds.

Some of the benefits of this material are:

• It compatible with all water based mud systems.
• Improves lubricity thereby reducing torque and drag of the drilling string.
• Seals small fractures in stressed shale formulation.
• Prevents bit and down hole assembly bailing by preferentially oil wetting the drill string.
• Reduces the down hole with temperature fluid loss and contributes to corrosion inhibition.
• Controls high temperature water loss.
• Inhibits swelling clay and water wetting of shale’s
• Reduces HTHP(High Temperature High Pressure) Fluid Loss
• Improves Filter cake Quality and helps seal micro fractures

Physical Properties of Sulphonated Aspahlt

• GLO ASPHOTEX 1000 is a Free flowing Powder and can be added directly to the Mud System through the Mixing Hopper with a good Agitation system. Typical concentration range from 3-7 lb/bbl (8.55 Kg/m3 -20 Kg/m3) for shale Stabilization .Dosage may be increased to 10 lb/bbl if required.
• GLO ASPHOTEX 1000 is packed in 25kg or 50 Lbs. (22.68 Kg) sacks. Private Labeling and customized packaging is also available on request.

• GLO ASPHOTEX 1000 must be handled as an Industrial chemical, wearing protective equipment and observing the precautions as mentioned in the MSDS.

Drilling

Drilling the earth in order to reach the water, gas, or oilfield. Oil well drilling is more complicated than water wells because its exploration and extraction are mainly located on the bottom of the sea floor.

The drilling operations should be carried out at a high speed, 24 hours a day, because the operation is expensive because of the cost of the mast and drilling rig. The location of excavation is very specialized and carried out by geological engineers. Geological studies predict only the possibility of reservoirs to ensure that oil is the only way to dig a well.
This location should be located at a distance from residential areas, adjacent wells, high voltage electricity and…. After locating the road engineer, the engineer begins to install the necessary equipment, rooms, roads, and so on. Afterwards, the mast is brought to the area separately from each other, then it is assembled and the drilling operation is carried out. The following figure shows the general design of the drilling:

drilling

Types of drilling methods:
Well drilling was initially hand-crafted, which is still common in many places, with the advent of different mechanical means, these excavations are now done with mechanical methods, which are generally two-way, Tapping Drilling and Rotary Drilling .
Now, most of the oil wells are drilled in a rotational way because it has more advantages. The drill rotates from a sharp and rotating drill to penetrate the earth’s crust. It consists of four main components, whereby rotary drilling is performed.

1. Main triggers
2. Equipped equipment
3. Spinning equipment
4. Circulation equipment

Rotary drilling has several types:

1. Vertical drilling
2. Diverting drilling
3. Narrow well drilling
4. Spiral Intubation drilling

The well drilling method is mainly vertical, except in special situations where drilling of oil wells is required deviant, including the presence of surface barriers such as the sea, the river, residential areas, or mountainous region or the enormous cost of creating a road and the location of the road and expenditures Very high on drilling rigs.
Some of the reservoirs are such that if the drill is done vertically, the well will sit in the brine and will not work.
Sometimes in the sea areas, the cost of the oil platform is expensive, so they can harvest a number of different reservoirs with an oil platform This is possible only by Diverting drilling.

Recently, the oil industry has provided equipment that makes it possible to drill wells, narrow well drilling can dramatically reduce drilling costs.
Spiral drilling is also a special type of narrow well drilling that has recently been used.
In this method, integrated gratings of high grade steel are used. This method has environmental effects as well as lower costs.

There are also two special types of drilling:
1. Under balanced drilling
2. Over balanced drilling

Under balanced drilling, termed UBD, is a negative pressure drilling method, in which the pressure of the fluid in the reservoir is greater than the pressure of drilling fluid at the bottom of the well.

In the drilling of oil and gas wells by under balanced drilling
, the fluid reservoirs easily penetrate the well due to higher pressure. This operation improves the efficiency of well drilling and does not cause any damage to the reservoir. Also, due to the pressure in the basement, the drilling speed rises.

In Over balanced drilling, the pressure of the column of drilling fluids is greater than the pressure of the reservoir. This method is more commonly and used for shallow wells and unstable soils.

Drilling with nuclear energy or ultrasonic drilling are two types of modern drilling that are in the research level and can be used for specific cases

Drilling equipments:

The drilling equipments are divided into, Well head and Down Hole Equipments.

1. Out-well Equipment
Components of drilling rig like;
Block Crown, Derrick, Sub base, Draw works , Rotary table, Mud Pumps, Power Travelling Block ،Commy Unit , Blow Out Prevention(BOP) ، Power Generator ,Kelly , Top Drive.

2. Well-head Equipment
Base Flange, Side Valve, Bottom Main Valve, Top Main Valve, Surface Safety Valve

3. In-well Equipment

Drill Bits, Pup joint, Drill pipe, Heavy weight Drill pipe, Drill Collar, Jar Pipe ، Stabilizer, casing، Liner, Tubing, PDM(In-well engines).

In the following articles we will refer to Natural bitumen

Oil wells wall (shale)

Some of the factors that cause instability of the well include the well path, the direction and magnitude of the stresses, the geomechanical characteristics of the drilling layers and the pore pressure of the layers, which causes slitting and tensile fractures in the well wall.
Wellness instability is one of the main problems in oil well drilling, this problem can be reduced by determining the proper drilling mud.

The main purpose of drilling operations is to maintain the well wall during operation. It is clear that the problems of instability of wells are a set of events that are caused by interactions between rock and fluid, the conditions of tensions, abnormal behavior, and inappropriate drilling practice.

The above-mentioned cases make the drilling operation time-consuming and cost-intensive. Under balanced drilling operations have been optimized for drilling, which results in more recycling of the reservoir.
Due to the fact that most of the formations of Iran are of carbonate type and these fields have a long history, they are compressed over time and it seems that it is imperative that submersible Under balanced drilling replace over balanced drilling in these carbonate formations because Utilizing a Under balanced drilling technique in these fields improves the utilization index along with the reduction of drilling problems and increases the rate of drilling penetration, but widespread increases the risk of instability of the well wall.

In the under balanced drilling technique, the hydrostatic pressure of the mud column in the wells is less than the pore pressure of the fluid in the well. The lower the pressure of the mud causes the well to be unstable mechanically, and even the well wall may collapse and the well will be lost.
Mechanical factors Instability of a well wall is often a combination of factors that are uncontrollable (natural) or controllable. The most important chemical instability is due to water absorption in formations such as shale or due to the dissolution of salt formations in fluid water.
Water absorption in the Chilean Formation can lead to shale swelling and reduction of rock resistance, which may cause the well to grow larger and cause a hole, or if the rock stays healthy, it will reduce the diameter of the well. Salt salting may result in large holes around the well and strongly infect mud drilling mud. In this case, the drilling mud should be completely changed, which can be prevented by selecting the correct type of drilling mud.

Causes of oil wells instability:
1. Torque and high friction
2. Increase the diameter of the well
3. Suspension of drilling, septum, and brain tubes
4. Reduce the diameter of the well
5. Increase circulation of flowers
6. Increase drilling depths
7. Tube tightness
8. Increasing the volume of cavities
9. Fracture in the field of drilling
10. There is a cavity on the wall surface
11. Excellent drilling depth
12. Filling the well after each operation
13. Lift up the pipe
14. Well control deflection problems
15. The need for large volumes of cement
16. Failure to drive images
17. Weak image responses
18. Gas leaks from the analos due to poor cement performance

Drilling mud

Drilling mud is a mixture of water and clay and is in fact a special group of drilling fluids that are used to dig deep wells.
So that the drilled material is brought to the bottom of the well, since the drilled material is sometimes of high weight, water can not be used for this purpose.
Of course, there should be a viscosity of flower that can easily remove the rocks from the well.
Once the material is brought to the surface by drilling mud, the material is separated and reused by special sieves.
Drilling mud other than raising drilling materials, other works are done at the bottom of the well that we mention to some of them:
Cooling and reducing the friction and wear of drill with the ground;

  • Lubricate drill and drill pipes
  • Laying and protecting the well wall and preventing the fall of the floors (the drill bit puts pressure on the well wall and prevents it from falling);
  • Establishing a balance between fluid and fluid in the well;
  • Transfer underground gas or oil to the surface and measuring devices such as a gas detection device or a gas-type device.
  • Underground pressure control
  • Hydraulic transfer of pumps to drill

Of course, it should be borne in mind that the main task of drilling mud is to maintain the hydrostatic pressure inside the well.
If the pressure is higher than the pressure of the materials inside the well, then the mud penetrates the builders and causes the flower to drop.
If the flower decreases rapidly, after the pressure is completed or lowered, the wellbore erupts. This causes the drilling rig to be destroyed.
In gas or oil builders, this flow is associated with a fire and causes the drill pipe to get into the well. To heal the flowers from different materials such as salt and so on.
The weight and mettle of drilling mud are changed due to well depth and internal pressure and the specific position during operation, which is one of the most important issues of drilling operations.

The base of the drilling mud can be divided into three categories:

1. Water-based mud

Water-based drilling mud consists of bentonite soil with additives such as barium sulfate, calcium carbonate or hematite.
Various condensers are used to impart fluid viscosity, such as gentamicin, guar gum, carboxy methyl cellulose, multi-anionic cellulose and starch.

Some of the benefits of these muds are as follows:

• High viscosity
• Lack of solids
• Fluid Waste Management
• Stable wells
• Help prevent wasting muds

2. Oil-based mud:

This type of mud is a non-water base mud, often oil-based mud contain 95% to 98% of gas oil, salt, water and other additives.

Oil-based mud is used for drilling in formations where the bottom of the well extends beyond the working temperature range of the Oil-based muds and has advantages over them.
In particular, because of the lack of conductivity of the oil, the thermal stability of additives, the absence of corrosive products and the lack of progression of bacteria in oil-based mud are suitable for corrosion control.

Oil-based mud have the ability to reuse over and over again. They can be stored for long periods of time. Generally, drilling speeds are higher with oily-mud, and more.

3. Gas-base mud:

This type of mud is used in weak and fractured layers that cannot be drilled with conventional methods and there is a need for air to be used as drilling fluid. This mud is made up of air or nitrogen.
Improving the drilling speed and reducing drilling time, reducing the damage to the layer, better drill performance and increasing drill life, controlling the annoyance of mud and reducing drilling costs are among the benefits of this drilling technique.

Minerals used in drilling:

• Gilsonite
This mineral is a unique combination of Gilsonite grade to provide optimum and optimal operation in drilling mud to stabilize shale (oil well walls). This material reduces slurry weight.
• Bentonite
In order to prevent the waste of drilling fluid in wells that have many gaps. Sodium bentonite can be used as an inner coating for wells. Bentonite increases the colloidal property and thus the percentage of powder and stone recovery increases.

• Mica
To prevent drill stuck in high-adhesive rocks.

• Graphite
Whenever the drill and its axle stuck at the time of drilling, this material is used and when removed, the barrier is removed from the well.

• Barite
To control specific gravity.

• Gallon
to control specific gravity.

• Lime and dolomite
To reduce specific gravity and alkaline control.

• Gypsum
To prevent carbonate contamination and also to clay minerals.

• Asbestos
To increase the percentage of cementing materials.

• Salt
At the time of drilling, in order to control the diameter of the well and also to control the scattering of the clay.

• Carbonate and sodium bicarbonate
In order to control the solutions and prevent the risk of contamination.

• Perlite and volcanic ash
Used as cement

 In conventional drilling operation a drilling mud based on bentonite or other materials mentioned are commonly used, but The solid organic materials used are difficult to keep suspended in the drilling fluid, being of a higher specific gravity than the fluid, while materials such as expanded perlite, though easily to suspend, become compressed to a specific gravity higher than that of the fluid under the bore hole. Furthermore, the commonly used materials lack adhesive power and are insoluble, and they have been known to become lodged in the wall of the bore hole so as to obstruct or seal off a producing oil or gas zone, thus causing a costly or even a complete loss of production.

All the common varieties of Gilsonite are substantially incompressible and have a specific gravity sufficiently near to that of water that properly sized granules of the Gilsonite can be readily suspended in aqueous liquid carrier. Thus,
Gilsonite is used for this purpose in powder. Particle size (mesh) is variable according to the characteristic of the well bore. Softening point is very important as Gilsonite must soften at a temperature above the temperature of well formation

 By adding some minerals or chemicals to the drilling mud, some of its properties are reduced or increased. In this section, we will examine the materials and the effect on drilling mud:

1. Cosmetic(NAOH):
To change pH and alkalize muds.

2. Clay:
To increase viscosity

3. Barite(BaSO4):
To increase the weight of the flower

4. CMC Hv:
To increase the viscosity of the cell (a special type of mud with a higher viscosity, which adds to the well when the well is in place and prevents any wasting).

5. Calcium(Ca):
Raise the difficulty of drilling mud

6. Bentonite:
To enhance viscosity

7. Additives like walnut skin, chocolate mica skin and. . . .
For penetration inside the pores (at high wasting).

 The mechanical properties of muds that should be determined in the laboratory are:

• Apparent Viscosity (AV):

Like the Marsh funnel viscosity (MFV), this is a single-point measurement, which means that it does not show us the abnormal viscosity and, by measuring it, we can only know if the viscosity is acceptable or not.

• Plastic viscosity(PV)

Due to the mechanical friction resulting from the collision of solids in the mud, the collision of solids with the liquid that surrounds them or the friction resulting from the movement of the liquid layers on one another, but the plastic viscosity is most affected by the concentration of solids in the flower. Therefore, with the addition of the weight of the mud, the viscosity of the plastic increases too.

• Yield point(YP)

In liquids that have plastic properties, when pressed to move the pressure fluid, the pressure reaches a point where the liquid begins to move. The yield point is the point of gravity measurement between liquid particles. These forces are positive and negative loads that are located on the surface of the particles, so the tail point depends on the characteristics of the surface of the particle and the concentration of solids in the mud. This benchmark is measurable by the rotating viscosity meter. . The high yield point is a sign of gravity and high viscosity.

• Gel Strength(GS)

The difference between gel strength and the yield point is to measure gel strength measurements of molecular gravity in static or static conditions. In fact, the gel Strength determines the effect of flower molding, while the yield point measurement of the liquid particles in Stream mode.

 An animation follows the general method of drilling and the use of drilling mud:

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